Thursday, December 5, 2019

Case Study on Googles Strategy in 2008 free essay sample

Case Analysis (Google’s Strategy in 2008) Introduction Google is the most used search engine worldwide as of 2008 (Gamble 2008). This is largely due to the consistently reliable search results it produces as its core product, in effect creating confidence amongst consumers. To keep this competitive advantage Google needs to identify forces that seem most likely to bring about major change to the industry within the next 3 – 5 years. In doing so, Google need to identify 3 – 5 factors that promote success in the search industry to help focus and navigate through the coming half decade. Forces most likely to bring about major change to the search industry in the next 3 – 5 years Innovative and game-changing concepts have been the driving force behind the success of Google over the past decade. Google need to look to the future to remain on top and maintain their competitive advantage against the competition. The introduction of the Android operating system for mobile phones was designed to compete with Apple’s iPhone and at only a fraction of the cost (Gamble 2008). Over the coming decade the Android will play a vital role in increasing Google’s mobile search market and increase its share of banner ads (Gamble 2008). The Android still needs time to mature and develop a more extensive range of apps for its mobile users to hold a larger share of the market. Over the next 3-5 years it will be evident that the Android will be a one of the most dominant players in the search industry. The ‘cloud computing’ concept may be one of Google’s most anticipated due to the idea that all computers can be linked up to one, anywhere in the world, is a major advantage to any global business. The licensing of Google’s online Beta word processing application will rival the Microsoft office version and at a 600% price difference it makes Google’s application look more attractive (Gamble 2008). As this concept may be easy to imitate by other firms, Google will have the upper hand firstly by having their reputation and secondly by the vast amounts of cash reserves Google can afford to spend in order to make their ‘cloud computing’ application unsurpassed. The agreement between Google and the U. S federal Communications Commission grants permission to use unused television airwaves. Newer and more advanced technologies will be designed to accept and transmit these frequencies, in effect creating larger Wi-Fi areas (Gamble 2008). The possibility for any device to have multi-frequency accepting transmitters provides communication in remote locations and around the world with endless possibilities. Not only will this bring about major change to the Search industry; it will dramatically change the Communications Industry. Key Factors that define success in the search industry 1. Google’s number one principle of corporate Philosophy is ‘focus on the user and all else will follow’ (Gamble 2008, p. C262). When Google made this statement they emphasized that its main objective was to please the customer, by putting the user’s interests first and success will follow accordingly. Being upfront by advising users that they refuse to make sacrifices to increase shareholder value shows uninterrupted user focus. When it comes to usage, the users appreciate basic ingredients; easy to use, instant results, search placement is unavailable for purchase and relevant advertisements to your search (Gamble 2008). Communication between the user and the application are the insights that so many companies miss, and are probably the easiest to grasp. Many companies spend time and money on inventing new technologies to what their understanding is of what people want; where majority of the time†¦it’s usually not. By focusing on what the user wants, other applications can be formed around this base of information. . While Google may have many applications that may be mind blowing, they believe that to be successful in the search industry you must be able to conduct your core service extremely well (Gamble 2008). This type of approach can be seen as building from the inside out, by focusing on what is important and applying yourself to what you’re good at. Nike does running shoes, Porsche does Sports cars, Starbucks does coffee and Google does search. In all of these companies, it’s simple to identify their bi-products but without the quality of their core product, these companies would cease o exist. 3. When it comes to search, instant gratification is priority number 1 (Gamble 2008). For success to be achievable it is a necessity to either meet expectations or to go beyond, and for the search industry; the standard is one of instance. By showing that Google are different from other corporations also helps in their success. It may be noted that Google may be the only company whose goal is to have users leave its website as quickly as possible (Gamble 2008); leaving the website quicker means the user found what they were looking for quicker, which encourages repeat use. This standard of timeliness expectancy can be seen across man different industries; building a house is 6 months, basic letter postage cross country is 1 week, ordering a coffee is 5 minutes and search is instant. 4. Being able to trust the accuracy of your search engine will, at the bottom line, make or break your company. Many companies have lost trust among users by manipulating partner sponsors to be displayed even if they have nothing to do with what the search is about. An example of this may be an advertisement for an electrician where the search indicated plumber. Google go to great measures to ensure that the veracity of search results are not compromised, it is not possible to buy a better Page Rank and sponsored links are relevant to the search item indicate (Gamble 2008). As Google pride them self on the simplicity and user friendly interface, it is essential that the search results and advertisements are not confused for being one or the other. Having a clearly defined area where advertisements may be relevant to the search is the key to the quality of the engine. Conclusion Google are at the forefront of search technologies and it seems as though the future is bright for the company. By pushing the boundaries of what is possible, Google will embrace and most likely cause change within the industry. Success will come naturally if Google maintain their innovative thinking and maintain their user focused philosophy. References Gamble, J. E. 2008, Google’s Strategy in 2008, (case 14, pp. C259 – C276). University of South Alabama Gamble, J. E. 2008, Exhibit 1, The Principles of Google’s Corporate Philosophy. Source: www. google. com

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Panini Company Business Plan

Business Plan â€Å"The Panini King†Ã‚  will provide freshly made Panini’s in a short time with several choices in the type of bread, cheese and meat for the customers. There will also be side–dishes such as chips, dips, and salads.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The Panini Company: Business Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is being planned and built by an educated and vastly experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Peter McConkey. Since market conditions in an area can have a significant impact on the profitability of the restaurant (Goodpasture et al), â€Å"The Panini King† located in a busy business area will satisfy an unmet demand for fast food do-it yourself (DIY). The Panini King is not â€Å"just another† fast food company rather it will be a  unique combination of excellent customized food at value pricing in an entertaining atmosphere. Our studies and experience show that customers (1) want value for everything that  it purchases, (2) a clean restaurant (3) want choices (4) want useful suggestions, and (3) want quick service – a necessity for any fast food company (restaurantowner.com). Panini King will do this  by providing customized, fresh and tasty sandwiches  within a short frame of time. It will also provide customers options in bread, cheeses, and meat in their Panini’s along with a healthy salads, chips, and drinks. â€Å"In 2010, the United States fast food market is forecast to have a value of $57.6 billion, an increase of 12.1% since 2005† (McCarty).This plan is prepared to establish the financial viability of the restaurant and to raise $40,000 in a 7-year term loan to finance the equipment and leasehold improvements. Additional financing required will be provided by the owner. Objectives In the first three years of operation the objectives are to make the joint a popular destination for customers, ke eping the cost of food under 30% of revenue, keeping labor cost between 25 to 30% of revenue, reaching annual sales volume of  1 million dollars, controlling costs, and hiring professionals such as CPA’s, to keep the business under control.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mission The mission of â€Å"The Panini King† is to be a premier fast food company. Our guests will not just enjoy their Panini’s but also enjoy the ambience when visiting The Panini King, hoping to give an experience that is as pleasing to the senses as it is to the palate. With its comfortable, conversational surroundings, and quality ingredients, it is easy to see why Panini King would succeed in its mission (Panera Bread, 2009). Keys to Success There are key external factors that are outside the control of the owner but can have but are likely to have an impact on business (I BISworld). However, the keys to our success lies in : (1) Creating a friendly and comfortable atmosphere that will set us apart from our competitors. (2) Serving healthy menu selections at unbeatable prices in a clean environment, consistently. (3) Controlling costs and (4) Hiring and retaining the most suitable people for the job. Company Summary The identifying characteristics of the Panini King will be Entertaining surroundings, Quality food, Variety, Longer hours, Self-service, and Friendly employees. Company Ownership Peter McConkey, the  sole proprietor of the Panini King with Bachelors in Science degree from University California with Major in Economy and Minor in Management. Mr. McConkey had his initial experience from family owned business based on which he has launched his own business initiative. He also has experience in distribution and customer relationship and has demonstrated his skills in marketing and advertising. Start-Up Summary Panini Joint’s  start-u p expenses include Restaurant Layout – employees, and professionals to plan leasehold improvements and interior design. Travel – Travel expenses for Mr. Peter to travel to his location of business. Lease Hold Improvement/Equipment – would be installed after the initial planning. Marketing Strategy A mix of TV advertisements and distribution of flyers to local businesses will be used to announce the opening of the restaurant.  Local radio and print media will also be used to announce the opening of the best and only Panini fast food company in California. Free Panini’s will offered to the first 100 customers and a novel concept of having Panini’s named after customers who visit the joint the most and place it in a prominent place. The ultimate form of advertising is the word of mouth and this is what we will encourage our loyal customers to do on an ongoing basis.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on The Panini Company: Busi ness Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sales Strategy The sales strategy is to provide best customer service to increase  repeat customers.   Once the sales reaches over $ 400,000 per year we plan to open additional joints in other cities across USA. We intend to franchise the name and the business system across the country and maintain a standardized approach to all centers. This in turn will result in more jobs creation which will be available to young, dynamic and hard-working individuals. Bibliography Goodpasture, John et al, Restaurant Market Analysis. University of Wisconsin-Extension, 1994. Web. IBISworld â€Å"Takeaway Food Retailing in Australia†. 2009. Web. Mccarty, Michael â€Å"Fast Food Market Forecast – The Subway Example of Strategic Product Positioning.† Fast Food Market Forecast – The Subway Example of Strategic Product Positioning. 2007.  Web. Panera Bread. The Proof is in the Su ccess (2009).  Web. What Do Customers Want? (2009).  Web. This term paper on The Panini Company: Business Plan was written and submitted by user Bodhi Cruz to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Documentary Review essays

Documentary Review essays The documentary I watched is about Thaipusam festival. I watched it on National Geographic Channel and was amazed to discover the meaning, the process and the traditions and practices of Thaipusam. It was interesting to watch the procession yet at the same time learn more about it in detail. Every January/February, depending upon the lunar month - on a full-moon day in the Tamil month of Thai, the Hindus will celebrate Thaipusam in honour of their Hindu God, Lord Subramaniam (sometimes referred to as Lord Murugan) who is a son of the Hindu God Shiva. He is believed to represent virtue, youth and power. As mentioned in the documentary, Thaipusam is celebrated in Singapore and also in Malaysia, although it does not occur in India, which is rather strange to me. Thaipusam is important to the Hindus, as they believe that it reinforces the solidarity of the minority Hindu community and symbolises the eternal struggle between good and evil. This festival is known for the devotees who fulfil vows by shaving their heads bald or performing rituals. Some have their cheeks, chest and tongue pierced with flesh hooks or thin sharp spear like metal rods that looks more like skewers. Personally, I find the piercing ritual rather horrifying as it was a gory scene with lots of blood. Some of the devotees carry milk pots, while some carry a 'Kavadi'. The Kavadi is a large festive structure, made of aluminium, covered with colour and peacock feathers. It symbolises a mountain, with an effigy of Murugan at the top. Some Kavadi can reach 3-4 metres in height. Others pull wheeled altars that are atta ched to the back by hooks. They all involve some form of body piercing. As they are said to be in a trance, there is no pain of piercing such stuff on their bodies. But as a viewer, it was rather painful for my sight. Young devotees as early as the age of 9 also participates in this festival, they have to go for a thorough bath du...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

SMART Methodology Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

SMART Methodology - Personal Statement Example As I have outlined in my first assignment, my interaction in a group environment has been characterized by immense learning. However, I have identified areas that require my attention. Since I hail from a culture where people are generally shy and not too open, I tend to take time and effort to open up. In addition to this, since English is my second language, I am shy when it comes to interaction. Hence, I have outlined three important aspects I would like to work on. I would like to be more open and receptive to ideas, I definitely want to emerge out of the comfort zone and interact more freely; and I also want to learn to build my trust in people. In addition to this, I would also like to become a more involved team-player and develop leadership skills in order to help steer my team towards a goal. In this paper, I would be developing an Action Plan, based on the SMART Methodology, to overcome these problems and achieve the envisaged goals. ACTION PLAN My action plan would be chalked out in terms of the various stages involved in the process of attaining the envisaged goal. The following is the step-wise procedure towards achieving the goals: Areas of Concern:It is very important to outline the areas that require improvement, in order to chalk out the action plan. My biggest short-comings are, my inability to open up and talk without feeling shy or intimidated. Once I achieve this goal, I would want to look at becoming a team-player, communicating effectively and acquiring leadership skills. Hence, these are the problems I would like to address and work on improvising, in my Action Plan. Addressing the Areas of Concern: An action plan, based on the SMART methodology is based on the following aspects: It is Specific in nature, Measurable in terms of time-frame and effectiveness, Achievable, Relevant to the areas of concern and finally, Trackable. The following action plan is based on these pointers: In order to open up and become less shy, I would firstly start identifying my feelings and what I would really like to communicate, Unless I am clear about this, I cannot communicate the same with the others. Upon understanding this, I must write it down. This will help train my flow of thought and help me express myself better. The writing can be formal or informal, based on the kind of emotions and the kind of interaction I would like to have. In a formal atmosphere, I would definitely like to express myself in a formal tone, without delving into informal aspects. This process is specific, because it is directly aimed at procuring a particular result that I have set. The time-frame set for this is at least a continuous cycle of fifteen days. Rigourous pursuit in this direction, would ensure that I am able to express myself clearly and in entirety. In the process of developing my ability to express myself, I would start interacting with people slowly. Every person has a comfort group. I would firstly open up with people that I am comfortable with. Their encouragement would give me the requisite confidence in taking my pursuit further. In addition to this,I would also work on improving my communication skills

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Historical figure-prove with evidence that Jesus actually excited Research Paper

Historical figure-prove with evidence that Jesus actually excited - Research Paper Example In the simplest terms, this is the case of Paul having the means to verify through James whether he had a brother Jesus or not. This is a natural means of verifying Jesus’ existence through relationships verification. This same process works in the case of for Paul directly knowing Peter, the disciple who is nearest to Jesus. If Jesus did not exist, then Peter would have told Paul so. This is common sense, given the public nature of Pauls work. Peter would have corrected him if Jesus did not exist. Also, Jesus being a life-defining figure for Paul, it would have been fantastic if he did not try to discuss Jesus with Peter and James. Peter and James would have corrected hm if Jesus did not exist. The personal relationships of Paul with James and Peter therefore stand as very solid pieces of evidence for the historical existence of Jesus. In turn, Pauls life accounts in the Bible can be taken as concrete evidence for the same (Ehrman, 2012). In Galatians 2, we have an account of the precise nature of that personal relationship and interaction between James the brother of Jesus and Paul, with Paul attesting to his being accepted by the disciples as a representative of the church to the Gentiles, in the same manner that Peter was the apostle for those who were part of the group of circumcised people. â€Å"James, Cephas and John, those esteemed as pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship when they recognized the grace given to me (Galatians 2:9 New International Version). In Galatians 1, too, Paul narrates his personal close contact with Peter, who he calls Cephas, and his encounter with James. This was when he visited Jerusalem, and when he stayed there with Peter for fifteen days: â€Å"Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to get acquainted with Cephas and stayed with him fifteen days. I saw none of the other apostles—only James, the Lord’s brother† (Galatians 1:18-19). Evans (2012), on the other hand, focuses on the

Monday, November 18, 2019

LOVE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

LOVE - Essay Example According to More’s work, love influences the duties assigned to individuals in different fields in life. In support of this assertion, More expounds on how love make men accept women to be assigned light duties (Barnet and Bedau 464). It is out of love that women are spared from things that can affect them in life. In connection with this, More also claims that Stewards ensure people work to earn a living but do not wear them out by keeping them at work for long hours. That is, the practice of humanity as a result of love make people save other people from problems since charity begins from home (Barnet and Bedau 468). In his work, More also argued that it is bad to deprive other people pleasure so that you can enjoy it yourself. According to him, depriving oneself pleasure for other person’s enjoyment portrays one’s humanity (Barnet and Bedau 468). In addition to this, More asserts that taking care of patients and providing them with what they need for recovery is a product of love (Barnet and Bedau 473). In tandem with More’s argument, the poem â€Å"Love is Sickness† presents love in a unique way. The metaphor â€Å"love is a sickness† shows that the modern society compares love to the sickness that affects the patient (a person in love). From the claim, it is apparent that love has symptoms, and it can be diagnosed. The poem also claims that love is full of uncontrollable woes.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Physical Activity Interventions for Postpartum Depression

Physical Activity Interventions for Postpartum Depression One of the most hazardous occasions for women to indicate depressive symptoms is the period that follows childbirth (Robertson, Celasun Stewart, 2003). According to http://www.apa.org (2015) the percentage of women that are likely to experience symptoms of postpartum depression ranges between 9% and 16%. According to the same source (http://www.apa.org, 2015) new mothers diagnosed with postpartum depression lose the ability to cope with everyday tasks and infant care and are prone to experience stress and melancholia. Robertson,Celasun Stewart,(2003) underline the correlation of the postpartum depression symptomatology with symptoms of severe depression such as lack of energy, low mood and loss of the ability to experience pleasure and report the probable presence of suicidal thoughts. The same researchers also address this complex disorder for new mothers as a severe health issue that affects the immediate family of the women and pinpoint the need to provide efficient solutions to the target population. According to the official website NHS.uk(2015) physical activity has been identified as one of the most prevalent options of treatment of mild depression and evidence supports the coping skills physical activity provides to depressive patients.The website also informs that the psychological therapies such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and interpersonal therapy, are the first choice of treatment for moderate postnatal depression to women with no psychiatric history. Robertson, Celasun Stewart,(2003) associate the lack of evidence on successful physical activity interventions as potential alternative treatment for postpartum depression with the undermining of the disease by patients and health professionals, particularly when there is scientific evidence on the positive impact of physical activity on depressive symptomatology(Nice.org.uk, 2009). Currie, Develin, (2002) acknowledge the lack of leisure time due to childcare and financial struggle as potential barriers for mothers with postnatal depression to engage to physical activity programmes. The meta-analyses conducted by Dennis Dowswell(2013) on postnatal depression revealed that, compared to standard treatment ,when women received interventions with psychological or psychosocial context, they were less inclined to develop symptoms of the condition. In their meta-analysis, Daley, Jolly, MacArthur(2009) did not attain evidence to support the replacement of traditional treatment of post-natal depression , with exercise interventions that can deliver results as successful as standard treatment. In a meta analysis (Dally, Jolly, MacArthur,2009)pram –walking group intercessions have been reviewed as easily accessible to women that are diagnosed with postnatal depression and are promoted by well-being practitioners as beneficial. The findings also indicate that Intervention focused on aerobics have successfully reduced the levels of depression for mothers and it might be profitable for future interventions targeting PND to include a mixture of aerobic and mild exercise. The first intervention to be discussed is conducted by Armstrong Edwards(2004), where they designed a 12-week randomised controlled trial for women that have delivered a baby in the past year. The aim of the RCT was to investigate the impact of a physical activity intervention group which involved pram-strolling women with their infants contrasted with the control group that provided social support. Kanotra et al(2007) acknowledge social support as one of the basic needs that arise for women postpartum.The meetings of the social support group were non-organized. In the pre-intervention stage of physical wellness, depression levels and social support were evaluated by quantitative measures. The same measures evaluated the effects after the 12th week when the Intervention was completed. The aim of the Intervention was for the pram-strolling group to indicate a decrease of the symptoms of postnatal depression while enhancing their wellness levels. The enhancement of the social support levels of both groups and the participants’ perspectives of the activities were defined as secondary endpoints. The researchers deduced that pram-strolling groups, integrated with psychological treatment and medication, can provide a cost-effective alternative form of coping with postnatal depression and improving their personal lives, especially when traditional treatment fails to provide efficient results. Robertson, Cesalun, Stewart (2013) acknowledge the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS), a set of 10 question self-rating scale as the most efficient and approximate to medically evaluated measures for depression. The researchers (Armstrong Edwards, 2004) supported that there was a correlation among fitness and depression; the improvement of the one had a significant effect on the improvement of the other. The results supported this rationale. The authors also suggested that other factors could influence the amelioration with regards to the depression levels.. The findings of the trial showed that in the first group, the symptoms of depression were diminished as well as the physical condition of the mothers was considerably ameliorated. Furthermore, social support was sustained at the same levels for the two groups. Although one of the hypothesis was confirmed, several weaknesses of the study have been acknowledged by the researchers that can undermine the value of the trial and establish it as not applicable to new mothers with postnatal depression(Armstrong Edwards,2004). As it has not been supported by evidence that the Cornish Walking Wheel, which was the measure used for fitness evaluation, can provide an accurate representation of â€Å"the maximum volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max)† (Armstrong Edwards, 2004, pp.6), it is not a reliable measure for fitness evaluation and needs to be examined in future research. Although it is acknowledged that the researchers tried to evaluate the Cornish Walking Wheel in the pilot study they conducted, this evaluation is not sufficient for the fitness measure to be perceived as reliable for fitness evaluation and future research on physical activity interventions of postnatal depression can explore the validity of the measure. Another weakness of the trial as recognised by Armstong Edwards(2004) is the choice of Social Support Interviews (SSI) in the Social Support Group. Although the questionnaire has been used in previous research (O’Hara,1995), it was not assessed for this Intervention against other validated measures. The authors recognise that the lack of results on the levels of social support could be attributed to the brief span of the trial and the measurement’s inability to recognise even mild variation of the social support levels provided to the targeted population. In order for Interventions to be reliable measurement-wise, Armstong Edwards (2004) suggest that the formulation of appropriate measures for each exercise group of postnatal women needs to be established. Armstrong Edwards(2004) raise another issue regarding the small sample of the trial (19 participants) which does not allow the results of the interventions to be generalized. Some other traits that confine the generalizability of the findings include the demographic homogeneity of the trial’s participants as well as the correlation of their high educational, socioeconomic background and regional proximity. As a result, the findings of the interventions, although successful to an extent, they are not applicable to different populations. In order to confirm the success of the randomised controlled trial for postnatal depression focused on pram- walking activities, future trials should be designed to target demographic heterogeneity and the recruitment of participants from various ethnical and socioeconomical backgrounds(Armstrong Edwards,2004). The second study of choice is a pilot study conducted in the UK. In their pilot study Gillinsky, Hughes McInnes(2012) executed a randomized controlled trial that consists of two groups with exercise courses and one 10-week body with pram-strolling activities. The pilot study aims to alter the behaviour of exercise and physical wellbeing and research the efficiency of behavioural and motivational intercessions. The application of accelerometers in the MAMMiS trial (Gillinsky, Hughes McInnes,2012) provides validity to the trial by measuring impartially the levels of physical activity of the participants for a week. The fact that the accelerometer is on for all the wakening hours of their daily schedule is one of the criteria to differentiate this study to more traditional ones on postnatal depression, is ithe fact that it provides flexibility to the daily schedules of new mothers by measuring the physical activity around the clock. One of the advantages of the study is the design (RCT),due to the nature of randomised controlled trials providing evidence that the results of an intervention are caused by the treatment option via randomization(Ebbp.org,2015) and the 12-week follow-up after the intervention is completed. One of the limitations of this trial is that it is a pilot study and pilot studies are implemented to locate certain weaknesses and modify them in order to design a larger, successful trial. Pilot studies explore the potential of an intercession and their results should not be taken at face value, especially because the sample sizes of a pilot study are always small(Leon, Davis Kraemer,2011).Furthermore, the efficacy of the study is potentially limited due to the fact that the trial is delivered by only one health-care professional and to a specific population in the Scottish countryside. In order to design successful intercessions of physical activity on PND based on this pilot study, the target population and the researchers involved need to be distinctive(Gillinsky, Hughes McInnes,2012). On an analysis focused on the impact of exercise on depressive symptoms Daley, Jolly McArthur(2009) concluded that physical activity interventions can be successful only as complementary treatments of postnatal depression, as there was no evidence to indicate successful rates when patients replace standard treatment(medication and psychological support) with exercise. Strà ¶hle (2008) in his paper reaches the same conclusion by arguing that although exercise has not been assessed on delivering clinically valid findings and as a result it cannot be applied instead of traditional treatment, whose clinical value is established. However, he acknowledges the helpful reaction exercise has on depression and encourages future researchers to investigate the appropriate duration and regularity of physical activity interventions(Strà ¶hle,2008). In addition, Robertson, Celasun Stewart(2003), recognise as unlikely for researchers to develop a single effective treatment option for the whole po pulation of postnatal depression, considering there is a variety of probable factors than can lead to the development of postnatal depression. Nevertheless, they underline the demand for sufficient evidence that can be used as a manual from professionals in primary and secondary care.(Robertson, Celasun Stewart,2003). Conclusively, it has been reviewed that studies investigating the efficiency of physical activity on postpartum depression (Daley, Jolly McArthur, 2009) lack sufficient follow-up findings and are characterised by small samples. These two factors indicate that postnatal depression interventions targeting exercise have not been sufficiently explored and future researchers should concentrate on developing interventions with larger populations and longer span of follow-up effects.After the literature review conducted by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England (NICE)(Nice.org.uk,2009) that supports the benefits of exercise on patients that indicate mild depressive symptoms, the next steps of the research community should be the formulation of cost-effective interventions of moderate exercise that can contemplate the treatment of women diagnosed with postpartum depression (Daley, Jolly,McArthur, 2009). REFERENCES http://www.apa.org,.(2015). Postpartum Depression Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/depression/postpartum.aspx Armstrong, K., Edwards, H. (2004). The effectiveness of a pram-walking exercise programme in reducing depressive symptomatology for postnatal women. International Journal Of Nursing Practice, 10(4), 177-194. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172x.2004.00478.x Currie, J., Develin, E. (2002). STROLL YOUR WAY TO WELL-BEING: A SURVEY OF THE PERCEIVED BENEFITS, BARRIERS, COMMUNITY SUPPORT, AND STIGMA ASSOCIATED WITH PRAM WALKING GROUPS DESIGNED FOR NEW MOTHERS, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA. Health Care For Women International, 23(8), 882-893. doi:10.1080/07399330290112380 Daley, A., Jolly, K., MacArthur, C. (2009). The effectiveness of exercise in the management of post-natal depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Family Practice, 26(2), 154-162. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn101 Dennis CL, Dowswell T. (2013). Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, Art. No.: CD001134. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3 Ebbp.org,. (2015). EBBP. Retrieved 3 March 2015, from http://www.ebbp.org/course_outlines/randomized_controlled_trials/ (EPDS), E., Depression., P. (2015). Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Psychology Tools. Retrieved 4 March 2015, from https://psychology-tools.com/epds/ Gilinsky, A., Hughes, A., McInnes, R. (2012). More Active Mums in Stirling (MAMMiS): a physical activity intervention for postnatal women. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13(1), 112. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-112 Kanotra, S., D’Angelo, D., Phares, T., Morrow, B., Barfield, W., Lansky, A. (2007). Challenges Faced by New Mothers in the Early Postpartum Period: An Analysis of Comment Data from the 2000 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) Survey. Matern Child Health J, 11(6), 549-558. doi:10.1007/s10995-007-0206-3 Leon, A., Davis, L., Kraemer, H. (2011). The role and interpretation of pilot studies in clinical research. Journal Of Psychiatric Research, 45(5), 626-629. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.10.008 Nhs.uk,. (2015). Postnatal depression NHS Choices. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/postnataldepression/pages/introduction.aspx Nice.org.uk,. (2009). Depression in adults: The treatment and management of depression in adults | treatments-for-mild-to-moderate-depression | Information for the public | NICE. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90/ifp/chapter/treatments-for-mild-to-moderate-depression Ohara, M., Swain, A. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression— a meta-analysis. Int Rev Psychiatry, 8(1), 37-54. doi:10.3109/09540269609037816 Robertson, E., Celasun, N., and Stewart, D.E. (2003). Risk factors for postpartum  depression. In Stewart, D.E., Robertson, E., Dennis, C.-L., Grace, S.L., Wallington, T.(2003). Postpartum depression: Literature review of risk factors and interventions. Strà ¶hle, A. (2008). Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders. Journal Of Neural Transmission, 116(6), 777-784. doi:10.1007/s00702-008-0092-x